SOME COMMON GLOBALIZATION ISSUES

Introduction
Globalization is not a single concept that can be defined and encompassed within a set time frame, nor is it a process that can be defined clearly with a beginning and an end. Furthermore, it cannot be expounded upon with certainty and be applicable to all people and in all situations. With all these being said also the major of this paper is to as well place more emphases on the currents global predicament or issues. Global issues are present in all areas of our lives as citizens of the world. They affect our economies, our environment, our capabilities as humans, and our processes for making decisions regarding cooperation at the global level. These issues often turn out to be interconnected, although they may not seem so at first. For example, energy consumption drives climate change, which in turn threatens marine fisheries through changes in ocean temperature and chemistry, and other food resources through changes in rainfall patterns. For the purpose of this work major world or global issues will be discussed not one, not two but major amount that is considerable will sure be analysed.

Conceptual Clarification

Globalization
Globalization is a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, and on human physical well-being in societies around the world. Silicon, (1996).
According to Thomas Larsson stated that globalization “is the process of world shrinkage, of distances getting shorter, things moving closer. It pertains to the increasing ease with which somebody on one side of the world can interact, to mutual benefit, with somebody on the other side of the world.” Thomas, (2001).
“Globalization is a term used to refer to the expansion of economies beyond national borders, in particular, the expansion of production by a firm to many countries around the world, i.e., globalization of production, or the ‘global assembly line.’ This has given transnational corporations power beyond nation-states, and has weakened any nation’s ability to control corporate practices and flows of capital, set regulations, control balances of trade and exchange rates, or manage domestic economic policy. It has also weakened the ability of workers to fight for better wages and working conditions from fear that employers may relocate to other areas.” stanlake.co.uk/globalization (24th June, 2015).

Brief Historical Overview of

Globalization
Globalization started after World War II but has accelerated considerably since the mid-1980s, driven by two main factors. One involves technological advances that have lowered the costs of transportation, communication, and computation to the extent that it is often economically feasible for a firm to locate different phases of production in different countries. The other factor has to do with the increasing liberalization of trade and capital markets: more and more governments are refusing to protect their economies from foreign competition or influence through import tariffs and nontariff barriers such as import quotas, export restraints, and legal prohibitions. A number of international institutions established in the wake of World War II—including the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), succeeded in 1995 by the World Trade Organization (WTO)—have played an important role in promoting free trade in place of protectionism. Larsson, (2001).

The Contemporary Global Issues or Problems

As earlier said in this piece of work global issues are present in all areas of our lives as citizens of the world. They affect our economies, our environment, our capabilities as humans, and our Processes for making decisions regarding cooperation at the global level. So therefore the major global issues or problems that our world faces today will be explained below under different category.
Human Development
The Human Development Reports team has defined the task of human development as “creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.”

Communicable Diseases
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria are just a few of the infectious diseases that continue to plague humankind, especially in the developing world. Meanwhile new threats such as the Ebola virus, avian flu and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) continue to emerge. With essential vaccines and immunizations still underprovided in many developing countries, communicable diseases are an international public health issue that has caught the attention of the global public and its leaders. There is increasing global awareness that communicable diseases do not respect national borders, and that how these diseases are dealt with in developing countries has consequences both for global public health and for the global economy. World Bank, (2009).

Education
In today’s global economy, education has become more vital than ever before in determining whether people, their local communities, and their countries achieve their potential and prosper. The world economy is undergoing changes that make it much more difficult for individuals in any country to thrive without the skills and tools that a quality education provides. This is particularly important for the poor, who rely on their skills and labor as their way out of poverty. These changes present new challenges and opportunities for educators and educational systems, and the stakes are tremendously high. The choices that countries make today about education could lead to sharply divergent outcomes in the decades ahead.

Global Environment and Natural Resources
This part focuses on issues related to conserving and more equitably sharing the planet’s environmental and natural resources in ways that meet present needs without undermining future uses.
Climate Change
Virtually all climate scientists now agree that climate change is occurring and is due largely to human activity, and that further change is inevitable. Recent studies indicate that human activity over the last 100 years has triggered a historically unprecedented rise in global surface temperatures and ocean levels, with a worrisome acceleration particularly over the last two decades. The consequences will affect billions of people, particularly in poor countries and in subtropical regions, through decreases in agricultural productivity, increased incidence of flooding and of severe weather events, an expanded range of waterborne diseases, loss of biodiversity, and a number of other effects. Beyond this, if the global climate is pushed far out of balance, it may become launched on an irreversible course toward catastrophe, with worldwide repercussions. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop an effective response to climate change.
Water
During the past century, while world population has tripled, the use of fresh water for human consumption, agriculture, and other activities has increased sixfold. Some rivers that formerly reached the sea no longer do so—all of the water is diverted to human use before it reaches the river’s mouth. Half the world’s wetlands have disappeared in the same period, and today 20 percent of freshwater species are endangered or extinct. Many important aquifers are being depleted, and water tables in many parts of the world are dropping at an alarming rate. Worse still, world water use is projected to increase by about 50 percent in the next 30 years. It is estimated that, by 2025, 4 billion people— half the world’s population at that time—will live under conditions of severe water stress, with conditions particularly severe in Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. Lomborg, (2004).
Global Governance
The need for a global governance system comprising international institutions, agreements, and regulations has long been recognized. After World War I, the League of Nations was created as the first attempt at such a global system.
Conflict and Development
According to the CNN report made as of 2014 some 1.1 billion people are either affected currently by violent conflict or at extremely high risk of being affected in the foreseeable future. The majority of violent conflicts today are intrastate, or civil, rather than interstate, or between nations, and the prevalence of both kinds of conflict is declining. Most of the world’s conflicts now occur in low-income countries, particularly in Africa.
With globalization, however, the persistence of conflict anywhere has ripple effects that range far and wide. Neighboring countries, in particular, suffer reduced income and increased incidence of disease, and often they must absorb large numbers of refugees fleeing the conflict. Civil conflicts frequently result in large territories lying outside the control of any recognized government, which may then become epicentres of crime and disease. Dervis, (2005).
The United Nations System
Effective management of global issues requires effective international cooperation, and the United Nations is the principal body within which such cooperation takes place. The Charter of the United Nations sets out the basic principles of international relations and entails obligations on all its member states. According to the Charter, the United Nations has four purposes: to maintain international peace and security, to develop friendly relations among nations, to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights, and to serve as a center for harmonizing the actions of sovereign nations.
The United Nations today faces many challenges to its effectiveness and is undertaking a variety of reforms in response. The success or failure of these reforms will have significant implications for the global issues discussed in this book. The organization also suffers from an unfortunate rift between developed and developing countries, which will make movement on reform extremely difficult going forward. Dervis, (2005).

Conclusion
In conclusion it is no doubt that the world today is facing a remarkable growth in science and technology which have further made the world a global village with the shrinking of different countries together for the purpose of achieving their objectives, but on the other hand all these benefits derived from globalization have brought lots of their own consequences which some of them have earlier been mentioned above. Although the World Bank have been trying to figure a way to prevent these aforementioned global issues. The World Bank is active in many global partnership programs that address global issues. Through its participation in these programs, the Bank plays an important role in collective action on a variety of global issues. Besides CGIAR, examples include the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, the Global Environment Facility, and the Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest.

References
Silicon V., (1996). Globalization and its Importance in Contemporary World; Retrieved from http://www.globalization101.org/what-is-globalization/ on 24th June, 2015.
Thomas Larsson, (2001) The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization. Sweden; Swedish Journalist Publisher Ltd.
Stanlake Search, “Glossary”, web resource accessed and retrieved 24th June, 2015, from http://www.stanlake.co.uk/globalization/recruitment-candidates/recruitment-glossary.php.
T. Larsson, (2001), The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization U.S.: Cato Institute Publisher Ltd, p. 9
Lomborg, Bjorn, ed. 2004. Global Crises, Global Solutions. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Dervis, Kemal, and Ceren Ozer.( 2005). A Better Globalization: Legitimacy, Governance, and Reform. Washington: Center for Global Development.

World Bank. (2009). World Development Report 2003: Sustainable Development in a Dynamic World. New York: Oxford University Press. (See especially the Overview.)

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BY THE PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY, JEREMY BENTHAM MEANS “THAT PRINCIPLE WHICH APPROVES OR DISAPPROVES OF EVERY ACTION WHATSOEVER ACCORDING TO THE TENDENCY WHICH IT APPEARS TO HAVE TO AUGMENT OR DIMINISH HAPPINESS. Emmanuel Abiodun

INTRODUCTION

Jeremy Bentham was a British Philosopher, Jurist, born on 4th Feb., 1748 and died 6th June, 1832. He is regarded as the father of modern utilitarianism. He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law, and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. Most of his work include; Utilitarianism, Economics, Law reform, Animal rights, Gender and sexuality and among others, but the major one which will be put into consideration in this work is “the principle of utility”. (Bartle, 1963). The primary concern of Bentham was the good or welfare of the community. Bartle (1963) asserted that he believed that his principle of utility could be applied with advantage to all social questions and particularly to constitutional, legislative, and law reform. He had a reading and practical interest in view, and was not merely concerned with a barren speculative theory.

The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the postulations of Jeremy Bentham on the principle of utility.

CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

Utility:

Utility is gotten from the Latin word ‘utilis’ meaning ‘useful’. In economics, Utility is the economist’s way of measuring pleasure or happiness and how it relates to the decisions that people make. Alpa (1994) stated that utility measures the benefits (or drawbacks) from consuming a good or service or from working. Although utility is not directly measurable, it can be inferred from the decisions that people make.  Otherwise, utility can be state or quality of being useful or advantageous.

Principle:

Marshall (1920) perceived principle as an accepted or professed rule of action or conduct. It is a fundamental doctrine or a specific basis of conduct or management. It can be seen as a general and fundamental truth that may be used in deciding conduct or choice. In general, A principle is a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed.

JEREMY BENTHAM ON PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY

At the time that Bentham appeared on the scene as a great reformer and thinker, the theory of natural right and the pompous generalizations of black stone regarding the greatness of the English constitution and the English law held the field, upon both of this Bentham poured his scorn, and exposed them to merciless criticism. (Burns, 2007). Burns continued that Bentham described natural rights as simple nonsense natural and imprescriptible right rhetorical nonsense upon stilts. For the theory of natural rights he substituted the principle of utility.

By the principle of utility, Bentham implies that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness. (Everett, 1966). The principle of utility as propounded by Bentham recognizes and addresses the subjection that nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do. On the one hand the standard of right and wrong, on the other the chain of causes and effects, are fastened to their throne and assumes it for the foundation of that system, the object of which is to rear the fabric of felicity by the hands of reason and of law. Systems which attempt to question it, deal in sounds instead of sense, in caprice instead of reason, in darkness instead of light. (http://www.econlib.org/library/Bentham/bnthPML1.html)

He further stated that political obligation was not based upon an original social contract. He argued that there was no such contract in the past and that, even if there were one, it did not bind the present generation. The only valid reason for obedience was utility or the general good, the principle he later described as ‘the greatest happiness principle’. (Bentham, 1988). He asserted government exists because they are believed they are believed to promote the happiness of those living under them, man obeys political authority not because of an original contract or natural right or any other ‘fiction’, but because of the habit of obedience’ thus in Bentham’s own characteristic language,’ the probable mischiefs of obedience are less than the probable mischiefs of disobedience.’ (Bentham, 1988). This therefore implies that the good of a society is the sum of happiness of the individuals in that society, that it is the greatest happiness of the greatest number that is the measure of right and wrong.

By “happiness”, he asserted a predominance of “pleasure” over “pain”. His principle of utility regards “good” as that which produces the greatest amount of pleasure and the minimum amount of pain and “evil” as that which produces the most pain without the pleasure. (Burns, 2007). According to Burns (2007), this concept of pleasure and pain is defined by Bentham as physical as well as spiritual. Bentham writes about this principle as it manifests itself within the legislation of a society, he lays down a set of criteria for measuring the extent of pain or pleasure that a certain decision will create and he restated that the principle of utility is a morally right principle of action for every situation. (Chand, 2008). He says that the principle of utility may also be described as the greatest happiness principle, in that it asserts that the only morally right and proper goal of action is to achieve the greatest happiness of all individuals whose interest is affected by the action and this principle is the only sufficient ground for deciding whether an action is morally right or wrong. (Everett, 1966). The principle of sympathy and antipathy (i.e. the feeling of instinctive approval or disapproval for the expected consequences of an action) is not a sufficient ground for judging the moral rightness or wrongness of an action.

In adverting to this principle, however, he was not referring to just the usefulness of things or actions, but to the extent to which these things or actions promote the general happiness. Specifically, then, what is morally obligatory is that which produces the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people, happiness being determined by reference to the presence of pleasure and the absence of pain. The principle of utility therefore presupposes that “one man is worth just the same as another man” and so there is a guarantee that in calculating the greatest happiness for Bentham, “each person is to count for one and no one for more than one.”

CONCLUSION

Having successfully analyzed the principle of utility by Jeremy Bentham, it can be deduced that by this principle, centers on how an essentially self-interested individual may be encouraged and, where necessary, directed to perform actions that promote the greatest happiness of both himself and others. It can therefore be concluded that by ‘utility’ he means ‘that property in any object, whereby it tends to produce benefit, advantage, pleasure, good, or happiness or to prevent the happening of mischief, pain, evil, or unhappiness’. The rightness of actions depends on their utility and the utility is measured by the consequences which the actions tend to produce.

REFERENCES

Alpa, G. (1994) ‘General Principles of Law’, Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law: vol. 1 isssue 1. article 2.

Bartle, G.F. (1963). “Jeremy Bentham and John Bowring: a study of the relationship between

“Bentham and the editor of his Collected Works”. Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeremy_Bentham. Retrieved on 17/5/2015.

Bentham, J. (1988). The Principles of Morals and Legislation. Amherst: Prometheus Books.

Burns, C.D. (2007) Political Ideas. London: Oxford Univeristy Press.

Chand, S. (2008) Political Theory. New Delhi: S.Chand & Company PVT Ltd.

Everett, C. (1966). Jeremy Bentham. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson.

Marshall, A. (1920) Principles of Economics. An Introductory Volume (8th edition). London: Macmillan

 

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SAP and its implications on Nigeria Civil Srvice, By Emmanuel Abi J.

Introduction
Since the early 1970s, most Africans States (Nigeria inclusive) have been bedevilled by the general crisis of development. This was manifested from dependence on a single commodity for export, rising public debts, declining agriculture productivity, e.t.c. The most far-reaching response to this crisis came from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in the form of a package of market-based reforms known as Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP). Babawale, (1997). Therefore Nigeria who was also experiencing strong difficulties in her economy at these times, to the extent that Civil Servants were unpaid for months had no form of hesitation to the programme.
The impact of SAP on the Civil Service is devastating. Its effect on the economy of Nigerian workers has bred organisational and political lack of confidence on the Managers of labour affairs. Yet workers, as individuals and through their organisations have put up resistance against the on-slaught of SAP on their living standard and have joined broad struggles to improve the conditions of everybody. The Nigeria Civil Service Union symbolised these struggles. In the course of this work the main area of focuses will be on the effects of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) on the Nigeria civil service, has the impacts be of positive or negative all these will be analysed bellow.

Conceptual Clarifications

Civil Service
Civil service usually refers to the functionaries of state who are appointed to their government jobs through non-elective process (Ayeni, 1987:87). Okereke (2003) reinforced this when he notes that civil service refers to government ministries and departments that are charged with the responsibilities of implementing policies. They are those in the service of federal, state and local government services primarily responsible for policy implementation and making inputs available for policy formulations.
Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP)
In its original sense, SAP was a ploy used by economically advanced countries to hands-off responsibility on those state-owned industries that were no longer capable of competing “with the new industrial capacity in developing countries” (Toye, 1995:1). That had been the trend from the 1940s until the 1980s. It was in the 1980s that SAP acquired a new meaning, the occurrence of which, according to Toye (1995), remarkably changed the history of world economic development. With its new connotation, SAP since then came to be associated with the developing countries, including Nigeria. Toye, (1995).

Reasons for the Introduction of SAP in Nigeria

There is no doubt that the Nigerian economy earned increased revenue as a result of the positive oil shock of 1973-1974. The windfall from oil and the subsequent boom enabled government to participate actively in the economy.

The windfall from oil was not utilized in creating a strong industrial base. Consequently, with the negative oil shock of 1981, government no longer had the resources to execute its programmes. However the collapse of world oil prices and the sharp decline in petroleum output, the latter resulting from a lowering of Nigeria’s OPEC quota in the early 1980s, brought to the forefront the precarious nature of the country’s economic and financial positions, therefore led to a persistent disequilibrium in the balance of payments.

During the mid – 1980s, the industrialized economies were going through a period of stagflation. Because the Nigerian economy is an integral part of the global system, it follows that depression in the industrialized countries will affect Nigeria. It was, therefore, not surprising that by 1984/85, the Nigerian economy was deep in a depression which started in early 1980/81, unemployment rates were very high, the rate of inflation became not only double digit but run-away coupled with declining productivity. And with the deteriorating nature of the civil service some measures were necessary to arrest the crisis. Hence this led to the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), by the former Head of State Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida in 1986. Akpan, (2004).

Effects of Structural Adjustment Programme in Nigeria Civil Service

According to Mu’Azu (2008), The conception of SAP is the “so c called” economic policy package which will open the economy to world big business, along the way to temporarily diversify exports, achieve fiscal and balance of payments viability, be able to pay foreign debts and strengthen the private sector.
Therefore in order to achieve these objectives through the strategies (SAP) so employed, certain policy measures and conditionalities were given. These policies are:

Withdrawal of petroleum subsidy: As part of the SAP-World Bank requirement for a reduction in government expenditure, the subsidy on petroleum products (gas, petrol, kerosene, diesel oil, and fuel oil) was reduced in 1986, 1988, 1989, and 1990.

Privatisation and commercialisation of public enterprises: With respect to privatisation, many Governments owned Enterprise were sold such as Government shares in the National Oil and Chemical Marketing Company Limited, the African Petroleum Company Limited, and Four Mills of Nigeria Limited were sold out.

The emergence of liberal foreign exchange of market determined rates: As Anyanwu (1989) observed, the Foreign Exchange Market (FEM) is a prescription for disaster that is fast destroying the foundations of the Nigerian economy. The continued naira depreciation at the Foreign Exchange Market has worsened and continues to aggravate the inflationary situation in Nigeria. This is so because, since domestic industries depend primarily on imported inputs whose costs have risen via the naira depreciation, costs of production rise leading to higher prices (Ojo,1989).

The liberalisation of external trade and payments: With the liberalisation of trade, businesses are allowed to make decisions freely about what they wish to import or export. The government imposes lesser restrictions

The deregulation of interest rate, such that it is determined by market forces: On July 31st 1987 the Central Bank of Nigeria, as part of SAP, announced the deregulation of interest rates. It also abolished (with effect from August 1st 1987) all controls on interest rates, which are now determined by the forces of demand and supply.

Wages freeze and later wage deregulation: That is attempt by a government to restrain wage-push inflation by holding wages at their existing level by force of law, and also to remove a particular arm of government from performing it functions when it comes to wage issues. For example the removal of wage and other labour issues from the Exclusive Legislative List to the Concurrent list.

Positive Effects of SAP
The major gain can be recapitulated as reversal of the negative trend of the growth of GDP and other key sectors of the economy. Others are easy access of economic agents to foreign exchange market and the enhancement of efficiency in resource allocation to the productive sectors enhancement of non-oil export competitiveness and inducement of enthusiastic export drive increase in the prices of agricultural exports in naira terms and the subsequent improvement in rural nominal incomes, successful debt rescheduling and debt conversion programmes, evolution of maintenance culture in both public and private life and the development of local technology and recycling of used materials. In spite of these gains, a number of economic problems have remained intractable. Okereke, (2003).

Negative Effects of SAP

In effect, The SAP has indeed introduced a lot of unimaginable difficulties on the civil servants. For them the only solution is to abolish the programme. Therefore, while they were fighting to improve their conditions under the programme, their long-term objective is to get the policy measures abandoned. On the other hand the Nigeria’s state wants to make that a permanent standard on the people

The implementation of the above policy prescriptions and others has brought a lot of hardship on Nigerian people especially the wage-earning group Civil Service in focussed. Members of Nigerian Civil Service are therefore horribly affected with the following:
Retrenchment of workers in the name of rationalisation of the public service, like workers elsewhere, members of Civil Service are going through, declining living conditions caused by declining value of the currency, stagnant wage level and increasingly rising inflationary trends.Increasing difficulties because of virtual commercial value of Health Services and Education of the children of Civil Service workers.

Unemployment as a result of retrenchment and closures of enterprises which brings more people under the dependency of “ordinary” workers, which were mostly the Civil Service workers which is a burden on their wages.

Unfortunately, the policies of adjustment which necessitated massive retrenchment of civil servants as a result of the deregulation in the Civil Service, instability in the exchange rate and currency devaluation which peaked at about 80% in 1995, led to stiff opposition of the Labour Movement. And also with the existence of the wage freeze, which is against the spirit of collective bargaining of the civil servants all these resulted to several strikes and official protest.

Conclusion/Recommendation

This study examined the SAP scenario during Babangida’s regime and why interest groups in Nigeria were opposed to it, the Members of Nigerian Civil Service Union (NCSU) tried all what they could with several numbers of protest but to no avail. This work has further provided the impacts of the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) on the civil service, which had affected the civil service negatively to this extent. The civil service which has been one of the bedrock of the government was not considered even before the introduction of the policy (SAP). Therefore this study provided the following recommendation which the government must put into consideration before adopting any policy into the economy.

Proper sensitization and enlightenment programmes should be carried out before government’s introduction of new policies such as SAP to assuage the fear of the general public.

Implementation of SAP should have a human face. Massive retrenchment of workers, removal of subsidies and privatization of public enterprises without a safety net to cushion their effects on the people will generate discontentment among the populace.

Government should be prudent in the management of resources at its disposal. There would not have been any need for SAP if the political leaders were prudent in the management of the abundant human and natural resources with which the nation is endowed.

Political leaders should imbibe the principle of good governance. Cases of mismanagement are rare when there is good governance. Political leaders of Nigeria and their bureaucratic henchmen should display the spirit of accountability and transparency in their dealings with public property and funds, in accordance with international best practices.

References
Anyanwu, I.C., (1989) Towards Increased Mobilisation and Effective Management of Resources for Secondary Health Care in Nigeria, paper presented at the National Workshop on the “Assessment of Secondary Health Care Facilities in Nigeria” ,Nicon-Noga Hilton Hotel and International
Mu’Azu M. Yusuf, (28 January, 2008). Structural Adjustment Programme and Nigerian Labour Movement. Kano: Retrieved from http://mmyusuf.blogspot.co/structural-adjustment-programme-and_28.html on 18th June, 2015.
Babawale, T., (1997). Adjustment Policies and their Impacts on Labour: The Nigeria Experience. Lagos Nigeria, Nagarlok Publisher Ltd.
Akpan h. Ekpo, (2004). The Economics of Structural Adjustment and the Adjustment Of Economics. Akwa Ibom, Uyo University Press.
National Centre for Economic Management & Administration(NCEMA), (2007) structural adjustment programme in Nigeria: causes, processes and Outcomes; Retrieved from http://articlesng.com/inefficiency-civil-service-strategies-eradication/ on 19th June 2015.
Ojo M. O. (1989) “An Appraisal of the Socioeconomic Impact of Structural AdjustmentProgrammes in Nigeria” in Economic and Financial Review, Vol 27, No 1, March 38-57.

Toye, J. (1995). Structural adjustment and employment policy. Geneva: International Labour Office.

Ayeni, V.A. (1987).’’The civil servant and the policy process’’ in O.A; Olusola O. and Ayeni, V (eds).The impact of military on rule, London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.
Okereke, O.O.(2003). The Nigerian civil service after the structural adjustment programme: some critical reminiscences. Nigerian Journal of Politics and Administration Vol . No.3.

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The Legislature and Good Governance in Nigeria, the 7th National Assembly in Perspective, By Emmanuel Abiodun Joseph

Introduction

A major characteristic of the Nigerian legislature is its principles of bicameralism predicated upon a two chamber legislature namely senate and House of Representatives at the Federal level. The art of governing is associated with cost to the government and the governed. The government incur cost while carrying out its essential duties of protecting lives and property of the people, defence of the territorial integrity of the nation, administration of justice, social services such as education, public works, provision of electricity, good road network, portable water, and a host of other services, all these cannot be achieved without the efficiency of the legislature. Bello & Mike (2004) emphasised that problem of stable democratic tradition has for long caused displeasure and angers virtually every country in the Less Developing Countries (LDC) of the world. Nigeria who is a prominent actor in this group of countries has had an epileptic experience vis-à-vis participatory democracy since the attainment of political independence on 1st Oct, 1960. But based on the question above “7th National Assembly in perspective” it is a double edge sword, whereby the negative and the positive perspective of it will be achieved.
The main purpose of this work is to analyse and examine the role of the 7th legislature in the National Assembly, its impacts, functions and effective measures toward achieving good governance in Nigeria, as well as the its problems or failure which it has incurred over the years.

Conceptual Clarifications
Good Governance
Good governance has taken on increasing importance in the last 15 years in development cooperation and is regarded today both in partner countries and by donors as an essential prerequisite for human development. There is international consensus on the basic components of good governance. wikipedia.org/wiki/campaign/governace. (4th June, 2015).

“In the context of a political and institutional environment that upholds human rights, democratic principles and the rule of law, good governance is the transparent and accountable management of human, natural, economic and financial resources for the purposes of equitable and sustainable development.

According to Udombana, (2009). Good governance is all inclusive and includes an efficient civil service, elimination of corruptionin government, a predictable, transparent, and accountable administration, democratic decision-making, the supremacy of the rule of law, effective protection of human rights, an independent judiciary, a fair economic system, appropriate devolution and decentralization of government.

Legislation

Legislation is defined as the making of laws, the process of writing and passing laws.
However, a common and also more acceptable meaning refers to it as a law passed by an official body especially a government assembly. Ranny, A. (1958).
According to the Black law Dictionary, legislation is the act of giving or enacting laws, the power to make laws, the act of legislating, preparation and enactment of laws, laws enacted by law-making body.
Thus, legislation either refers to the process of making laws or the laws that emanate from such process. An important feature of it is that it must have emanated from a government body known to the laws of that society and this body is known as the legislature

Composition of the legislature

Literally, the Legislature is a group of people who have the power to make and change laws for any given complex organization. Nigeria practices a Bicameral Legislature that composes of two chambers which are The House of Senate and House of Representative. The legislature is one of the three principal organs of government in a nation-state. The other two are the Executive and the Judiciary. Bello & Mike (2004).
In Nigeria there had been agitation for equal representation in the polity. But what determine the legislature in Nigeria are the Constitution and certain social and political factors. Membership of the Senate is based on equal representation of the states of the federation. Except Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory. The 1999 Constitution provides as follows:
The senate shall consist of three Senators from each state and from the Federal Capital Territory.
The House of Representative shall consist of three Hundred and sixty members representing constituencies or nearly equal population as possible, provided that no constituency shall fall within more than one state. Ayanwu, N. D., (1999).

A Brief Overview of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Nigeria is a Federal Republic composed of 36 States, and a Capital Territory, with an elected President and a Bi-cameral Legislature. It operates the Presidential system of Government with three distinct but complementary arms namely the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary, each acting as a check on the other two.
Nigeria is a country with varying climatic conditions. It is tropical in the centre, equatorial in the South and arid in the North. It lies between 3oE and 15oE, and between 4oN and 14oN in Western Africa. Nigeria has borders in the North with Niger and Chad, Republic of Benin in the West, Republic of Cameroun in the East and the Atlantic Ocean in the South. Nigeria has a total land mass of 923,768Km that is made up of 910,768Km of land and 13,000Km water. Nigeria is a country endowed with a lot of mineral resources like fossil fuel (crude oil, natural gas, coal and lignite), radioactive minerals (Uranium, monazite and zircon), metallic minerals ( tin, columbite, iron, lead, zinc, gold), non-metallic minerals (limestone, marble, gravel, clay, shale, feldspar) and arable land. Americanessays.com. (2nd June, 2015)

The Legislature and Good Governance in Nigeria

Functions of the legislature
According to Bello & Mike (2004) give the following four global functions or roles of the legislature:
Legislation: the first important functions of the legislature are, of course, to enact laws. Every provision of a law requires to be framed with the most current and long-sighted perception of its effect on all the other provisions; and the law when made should ba capable of fitting into a consistent whole with the previously existing laws. It is impossible that these conditions should be in any degree fulfilled when laws are voted clause by clause. The mere time necessarily occupied in getting through bills renders parliament incapable of passing any except on broad principles.
Oversight Function: parliament plays a crucial role in the administration of a country by overseeing the actions of the executive arm of government. This is done to hold all state institutions accountable with a view to throwing the light of publicity on the government’s acts; to censure them if found condemnable, and, if the men who compose the government abuse their trust or fulfil it in a manner which conflicts with the deliberate sense of the nation, to expel them from office, and virtually appoint their successors. Their successes in this regard however depend on their individual and collective willingness to act as well as the constitutional capacity they have.
Finance: in matters of finance, it should be a rule that public money cannot be raised or spent without parliament’s sanction; but proposals for raising and spending money must come from the Executive. Further, the right of private members to propose new items of expenditure should be restricted, because this puts a premium upon particular interest instead of on the general interest, or upon the immediately apparent instead of the more essential.
The Ventilation of Grievances: finally, a legislature is a useful organ of public opinion, ‘the nation’s Committee of Grievances, and its Congress of Opinions’, a place where interest are shade of opinion can have its cause presented. This is a most important function in a democracy, which has been well described as a government control by public opinion.

The Achievements of the 7th National Assembly

It is no doubt that the Nigeria Legislature the 7th Assembly in perspective had failed Nigerians in some no of ways, as it has been painted with some level of corrupt practices. Giving for example the Nigerian Legislature (7th National Assembly) had exhibited the habit of fattening their paycheques by awarding themselves outrageous allowances.  Nigerian parliamentarians were reputed to be the highest paid in the world, earning more than even their British and American counterparts. Despite these there were some achievements they were able to make.
The 7th Senate achieved some measure of success in the areas of the number of bills that were passed, motions moved, in our oversight functions and in our legislative duties. Some landmark bills passed by this Senate include but not limited to; Pension Reform Act 2014, National Health Act, Same Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act and the Terrorism (Prevention) Act. The 7th Senate confirmed a total number of 429 persons between 2011 and 2015.

In addition, a parliamentary delegation was received from Gambia, Benin Republic and China while over 27 delegations from the Senate attended international conferences and seminars. Invitations were also honoured from the Parliaments of Czech Republic and China.

In spite of the difficult political condition and economic climate within which they worked and despite their internal challenges, the Senate convinced that they represented their constituents and Nigerians with the most noble of intentions and to the best of their abilities.

Another area where the national assembly has made remarkable inputs bothers on the aspect of security in the country, the endorsement of the declaration of emergency rule in three states of the north by President Goodluck Jonathan. President Jonathan’s declaration of state of emergency in Yobe, Borno and Adamawa states was made possible due to the cooperation and guidance the Presidency received from the legislature.
Also within the last four years, the former Nigerian Legislatures matured politically. That was why when some Senators defected from one political party to the other, one united Senate was still maintained.  Even though the political intrigues of the last four years sometimes slowed down important legislative business, they nevertheless enriched our democratic understanding and these are consider equally important to the democratic process.

The 7th National Assembly also gave maximum support to NILS (No Interest Loan Scheme). The institute has made remarkable progress in such a short time with its influence extending to other African countries. It is the type of scheme that provides interest-free loans for individuals or families on low income. theeagleonline.com.ng/7th-senate (4th June, 2015).

Failures of the 7th National Assembly

As reported by the Premium Times, the outgoing Seventh National Assembly of Nigeria said it passed a total of 106 bills into law out of 1,063 bills sponsored and brought to its legislative attention in the past four years (2011-2015). Despite earning the world’s record as the most expensive parliament in the world, the number of bills passed by the referenced National Assembly is considered very abysmal when compared to what obtains elsewhere including the United States where the U.S. Congress passed 297 bills between 2013 and 2014. Emeka Umeagbalasi, (2015).

Missing $20billion oil money: In 2013, a former Governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria, Lamido Sanusi, alleged that the NNPC failed to remit billions of naira in oil proceeds to the state. This caused a huge rift between the CBN governor and President Goodluck Jonathan, leading to the president suspending Mr. Sanusi from office. Although The National Assembly investigated the matter but she was unable to bring it to closure.
Stella Oduah: Before her removal as Aviation Minister, Stella Oduah was embroiled in a N255 million armoured car scandal. She was accused of abusing her office by compelling an agency under her ministry to buy her expensive cars. The House of Representatives has so far failed to release a detailed report of its investigation into the matter. Although Ms. Oduah was later dropped as minister, other officials involved in the matter remained untouched till date.
Farouk Lawan: House of Representatives member, Farouk Lawan, was caught on tape collecting $620,000 out of a $3million bribe while his committee investigated the fuel subsidy scam. He was seen collecting the money from oil mogul, Femi Otedola. The House of Representative referred the bribery allegation to its committee on ethics. But no report has been issued till date.
$15million private jet/arms scandal: A private jet conveyed $15million in cash to Johannesburg for a purported arms deal between Nigeria and a South African firm. That deal seriously embarrassed Nigeria, but the National Assembly failed to investigate. Attempts by lawmakers of the All Progressives Congress to table the matter at the House of Representatives were frustrated by their Peoples Democratic Party’s counterparts and this further led to the subdue of the matter up till now.
Police Pension Fund Fraud: Five people, including former Director of Police Pension Fund, Esai Dangabar, were accused of misusing N32.8billion from the Police Pension Fund. Mr. Dangabar accused some committee members of the Senate of benefiting from the loot. The senate denied the allegation without ordering an investigation. The world may never know whether indeed the Senate joint Committee on Establishment and Public Service Matter, and State and Local Government Affairs indeed took bribes from the pension thieves. This act also postulated part of their failure.
Ekiti Election: A leaked tape of the alleged electoral malpractices during the gubernatorial election in Ekiti State caused a major stir in the country. Four principal characters were heard discussing how to manipulate the election. The voices were those of former Minister of State for Defence, Musiliu Obanikoro; the Minister of Police Affairs, Jelili Adesiyan; former Deputy governor of Osun state, Iyiola Omisore, and the eventual winner of the election and current governor of Ekiti state, Ayo Fayose. Despite the huge evidence in the public domain, the Presidency said it would not investigate the matter.
The National Assembly has failed to investigate the matter, which is clearly a major assault on our democracy. Mr. Obanikoro indeed went ahead to receive a National Assembly approval for ministerial appointment.
Farouk Lawan: House of Representatives member, Farouk Lawan, was caught on tape collecting $620,000 out of a $3million bribe while his committee investigated the fuel subsidy scam. He was seen collecting the money from oil mogul, Femi Otedola. The House of Representative referred the bribery allegation to its committee on ethics. But no report has been issued till date. Richard A. Joshua O. (5th June, 2015).

Conclusion
The inevitable conclusion from the foregoing analysis of the legislature and the legislative process in Nigeria is that the legislature has not lived to the expectation of Nigerians in terms of making laws that will guarantee good governance for the benefit of all and sundry. The legislators, as has been shown, have not demonstrated enough patriotism in support of Nigeria’s fledgling democracy. Majority of the members are driven more by selfish desires of wealth accumulation than the patriotic desire of leaving enduring legislative legacies by taking cue from other advanced jurisdictions of the world.

Recommendations for the 8th National Assembly

In order for the coming legislatures to achieve efficiency in the aspect of good governance, first the legislature should be insulated from the influence of the executive. This influence, in most cases, is counter-productive as it is meant to sway the minds of the legislators from the serious business of law-making.
Second, law-makers should be more responsible and responsive to their responsibilities. The excuse that is often given that bills take time to go through the legislature because of lack of quorum is not tenable anywhere in the world. A solution to this ugly trend may be to make the salaries and allowances payable to the law makers vary directly with the number of times they participate in the proceedings at the floor of the house.
Third, the leadership of the house should be more financially responsible. Award of contracts should follow due process and be carried out in a transparent manner. This will prevent the ugly scenario that was painted recently by the allegation of contract manipulation levelled against those who were engaged in embezzlement.
Lastly, it is a truism that some law-makers display such an embarrassing level of ignorance of the legislative process such that one is compelled to wonder if such persons could contribute meaningful to the process on the floors of the legislative houses. It is therefore recommended that a regime of training and retraining should be put in place to educate the law-makers on the business of law-making in the best interest of Nigerians that have elected them.

References

Ayanwu, N. D., (1999). The Law Maker Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999-2003) (3rd ed). Start Craft International Publisher.
Bello-Imam I.B & Mike I.O., (2004). Democratic Governance and Development Management in Nigeria (Fourth Republic). Ibadan. Centre for Local Government and Rural Development Publishers.
Udombana, N. (2009). Akpabio’s Administration: A model of Democratic Practice and Good Governance. Weekend Pioneer. Friday, May 29 Vol. 19 No. 28, pp. 53 and 60.
Ranny, A. (1958). The Governing of men. New York. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
http://www.blacklawdictionary.com-the-legislature-roles-misconceptions-and-experience/consolidation. html: Retrieved on 1st June, 2015.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaign_for_Good_Governance/html: Retrieved on 4th June, 2015.
Americanessays.com.Exploitation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Nigeria. Retrieved on 2nd June, 2015.
http:www//theeagleonline.com.ng/7th-senate-our-successes-our-failures-by-david-mark/html: Retrieved on 4th June, 2015
Emeka Umeagbalasi, B.Sc. (Hons) Criminology & Security Studies (2015): Retrieved from http://www.elombah.com/elombah/detail.php?world=32550, on 5th June, 2015.
Richard A. Joshua O. & Chinenye U., April 26, 2015: Retrieved form http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/182111-top-10-corruption-scandals-nigerias-national-assembly-hasnt-resolved.html: on 5th June, 2015

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Analysing the nexus between Trade, Science and Technology…By Emmanuel Abiodun Joseph

Introduction

Modern technology usually refers to the combination of computers and communications devices which in the last several decades have changed the way in which we handle information. These changes are having a substantial impact on both the practice and the law of international trade, notably in the use of electronic documents to replace papers, the so-called electronic data interchange (EDI). The same technology permits services to be offered in remote locations which previously would have required a substantial local presence. The science of creating and producing will continue to change the way in which large cargoes can be handled and the way in which large carriers may be operated. More refined models of stock control, only possible with substantial computing facilities, will continue to change the pattern of stock replacement and, consequently, the pattern of stock movement and the international trade in goods. (Alan, 9 – 11, 1992).

While this particular form of modern technology undoubtedly is having its impact on both the practice and the law of international trade, it is by no means the only modern technology exerting such an influence. We can expect the value of trade in biological products to increase as a proportion of the total value of world trade. The use of cell technologies to produce monoclonal antibodies and of genetic manipulation to produce new and more profitable crops are but two examples of an industry with almost unlimited trade potential. Therefore it is no doubt that trade, science and technology are interdependence and with their nexus or relationship towards each other they have made the world a better place and also made a remarkable improvement in the living condition of man. The piece of work will analyse the benefits of the relationship between these three concepts (trade, science and technology), it will also determine it disadvantages after which is the conclusion.

Conceptual Clarifications

Trade

Trade involves the transfer of the ownership of goods or services from one person or entity to another in exchange for other goods or services or for money. Trade exists due to the specialization and division of labour.  According to Roper (1978) Trade refers to buying and selling of goods and services for money or money’s worth. It involves the transfer or exchange of goods and services for money or money’s worth. The manufacturer or producer produces the goods then moves on to the wholesaler, then to retailer and finally to the ultimate consumer.

Science

According to Morris (2008) Science is the concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding

Technology

According to David (2003) the word technology comes from the Greek words techne which means “craft” and logy which means “scientific study of”. So technology means the “scientific study of craft”. Craft here means any method or inventions that allow humans to control or adapt to their environment.

Theoretical Framework

The theory put into consideration in this work is the globalization theory. Globalization is a theory whose aim includes the interpretation of the current events on the international sphere in terms of development, economic conditions, social scenarios, and political and cultural influences. In more specific terms it is important to mention that the globalization theory implies a key element concerning integration -integration regarding international trade, the international financial system, technology and the act of communication among states

Globalization theory focuses on a process of accelerated communication and economic integration which transcends national boundaries and increasingly incorporates all parts of the world into a single social system (Burnell P, Randall V. 2008).

Peter (2002) describes globalization as the integration of economic decision making  such as consumption, investment and saving across the world , this implies that globalization is a process that creates global market where all nations are compelled to participate, it consist of a relationship between sovereign countries through trade and capital flow.

The key elements of this theory involves the inter connectedness of sovereign states through trade, science and technology, the effect of this interconnectedness or relationship on the international system be it positive or negative. Globalization however comprises of four dimensions which are; economic, cultural, political and ecological, our focus in relation to the topic concerns basically economic globalization. Shangquan (2000) conceptualizes economic globalization as an increasing interdependence of world economies as a result of the scale of cross border trade relations flow of international capital and rapid spread of technologies.

The Relevance of this Theory Include the Following:

This theory is relevant because it shows the integration of the world as a global village which help in making it easy for state to relate with each other in the international scene for the main purpose of achieving their foreign policy.

Second, under current global conditions, and when we are studying a particular system -i.e., financial or trade sphere- it is not as important as previously thought to use the nation-state category as a unit of analysis, since global communications and international ties are making this category less useful.

Third, with more standardization in technological advances, more and more social sectors will be able to connect themselves with other groups around the world, which implies faster and easier communications and economic transactions.

It also deals with analysing the inter relationship between trade and science and technology in the international scene. Additional employment in the capital goods sector where new machines are being produced, decreases in prices resulting from lower production costs on account of technological innovations,

 

The Nexus between Trade, Science and Technology

Science and technology or productive technology can be traced to the 18th century industrial revolution in Europe. It was one of the major reasons for the increased trade among Europe and the whole world. (Akpuru, 2002: 45).

Science and technology is important in trade because it accounts for productive efficiency and mass production. It is as a result of technology that industry has supremacy over agriculture.

Technology has contributed greatly to trade. Today it is the nucleus of extractive, manufacturing and distributive industries, including the revolution presently occurring in the agricultural sector.

It also had an impact on global trade in the sense that less advanced countries will like to trade with countries with technologically advanced countries. For instance, 15 years ago Nigeria had no Mammogram or MRI scan but now they have it and this has affected their trade with the global world because both neighbouring and distant countries will like to purchase these services. It can also be viewed at a totally different angle. Due to lack of trained personnel or professionals to operate these machines or render these services, she might decide to import the necessary labour or skill from overseas.

A significance of modern production system is heavily technologically. This can be seen in the case of the multinational corporations in Nigeria. These firms or companies are successful in their host countries more than the local industries present there due to the importation of foreign technology. An example is Julius Berger Construction Company.

The Benefit of the nexus between Trade, Science and Technology

Use of Technology in Business:  today business can save money by using technology to perform certain talks.  For instance if you operate a manufacturing business instead of bringing so many people to work in certain areas, with the involvement of machines it will therefore lead to rapid production.

The Using of Technology in Communication: unlike in the past when communication was limited to litter and waiting for those posted services to derive your message. To technology has made the field of communication easy.

The Use of Technology in Education. Also technology has made a very big change in the world today as it has ensured easy access for business men to get acquainted to learning facilities and also to acquire basic knowledge on how to handle a particular business since the requirements necessary for that particular line of business have been acquired or achieved, therefore this serves as one of the major benefits of technology to trade.

Use of Technology in Purchasing: technology has also made the buying and selling of goods and services so flexible with the introduction of e-payment systems like PayPal. Com and square wallet app, users can easily purchase anything online without living to comfort of their home.

The Use of Technology in Agriculture: this has to do with the invention of machines for farmers, they can use a farm machine like farmgraze, to work faster and be more accurate while in the field and off the field.  For instance farmgraze machine will help the farmers manage their grass more effectively by suggesting the cheapest feed for their livestock.

The use of technology in transportation: The invention of cargo train, cargo plane and large ship such as Allure of the sea and cargo ship are used in the transportation of finished goods from one country to another so as to facilitate international trade.

Use of Technology in the Banking: now electronic banking moving money has become so simple. The invention of visa electron has made it simply to move with more money without having any fears of getting robbed on the way. You can buy and anything with a visa electron card, so in this case you do not have to move with cash. Spero, (1980).

The Disadvantages of the Relationship between Trade Science and Technology

Beside the numerous advantages of science and technology in trade, there are also some disadvantages these include the following:

Over Dependency: the disadvantages of science and technology in trade have created dependency in the sense that those countries which are not technologically advanced now depend on the countries which are technologically advanced.  As a result of this, the advanced state uses the opportunity to exploit the underdeveloped or developing state.

Colonialism: colonialism can be defined as the total political, economic and socio-cultural domination of a stronger state over a weaker state.  As a result of the discovery and the advancement of in science and technology brought about the overproduction and under consumption of goods and service which then result for the advanced state to search for market where they can sell their goods and service which then lead to colonialism of third world states.

The Production of Substandard Product:  Again, another disadvantage of science and technology in trade is that it aids in the production of substandard product. Also through advanced medium of communication this substandard goods are introduced into 3rd world countries.

Employment: science and technology is often accompanied by industrialization. Industrialization entails the use of machines which is aimed at mass productivity. Once this is done, it leads to unemployment because machines now take the position of humans who were willing to work.

Environmental Degradation- Most multinational corporations who are sited in host countries amount for the environmental degradation of such host countries. This might be through oil spillage, air pollution and water pollution. An example is a case of Shell petroleum that has issues of oil spillage in most riverine areas. This is the reason why they have decided to go offshore.

It has also affected the health of individuals. When these Multinational corporations degrade the environment it might affect the health of the individuals living in that location. An example can be seen in the case of gas flaring in Nigeria. The people located in the region where the gas is flared tend to develop respiratory illness and mostly cancer.

Conclusion

Conclusively it is very obvious and apparent that science and technology has had a great impact on trade, but in reaction to the question above this explains that the relationship which exists between trade, science and technology is a double edge sword. So therefore in the course of this work we have been able to explained the nexus between these three subject matters as well as the benefits between them and also the disadvantages of the relationship between trade, science and technology have been analysed. Hence one can say that these three concepts are interrelated and interdependent.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Alan L. T. (9 – 11, 1992) Conference on International Business Law, September; Retrieved from http://austlii.edu.au/~alan/scibl.html on 13th June, 2015.

Morris. C. (2008). The Deep Structure of Biology, Templeton Foundations Press, W. Conshohocken PA.

David C. Lindberg (2007). The beginnings of Western science: the European Scientific tradition in philosophical, religious, and institutional context, Second ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press

Roper, T. (1978) Approaches and Theory in International Relations, London; Longman.

Peter Burnell, Vicky Randall (2008), Politics In Developing World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Peter, O.N. (2002) . Restrictions Economy through Privatization: The Economist 4

Shangquan G. (2002). Economic globalization: trends, risks and risk prevention, New York. Www.

Un.org/esal/policy/devplan/index.html

Akpuru Aja (2002) Selected Themes in International Economic Relations: Understanding trends of Globalization and Regionalization. Enugu: Nigeria.

Spero, Jona E., (1980) The Politics of International Economic Relations, London, George Allen & Unwine, , chapter one (pp.1-12)

 

Introduction

Modern technology usually refers to the combination of computers and communications devices which in the last several decades have changed the way in which we handle information. These changes are having a substantial impact on both the practice and the law of international trade, notably in the use of electronic documents to replace papers, the so-called electronic data interchange (EDI). The same technology permits services to be offered in remote locations which previously would have required a substantial local presence. The science of creating and producing will continue to change the way in which large cargoes can be handled and the way in which large carriers may be operated. More refined models of stock control, only possible with substantial computing facilities, will continue to change the pattern of stock replacement and, consequently, the pattern of stock movement and the international trade in goods. (Alan, 9 – 11, 1992).
While this particular form of modern technology undoubtedly is having its impact on both the practice and the law of international trade, it is by no means the only modern technology exerting such an influence. We can expect the value of trade in biological products to increase as a proportion of the total value of world trade. The use of cell technologies to produce monoclonal antibodies and of genetic manipulation to produce new and more profitable crops are but two examples of an industry with almost unlimited trade potential. Therefore it is no doubt that trade, science and technology are interdependence and with their nexus or relationship towards each other they have made the world a better place and also made a remarkable improvement in the living condition of man. The piece of work will analyse the benefits of the relationship between these three concepts (trade, science and technology), it will also determine it disadvantages after which is the conclusion.

Conceptual Clarifications

Trade
Trade involves the transfer of the ownership of goods or services from one person or entity to another in exchange for other goods or services or for money. Trade exists due to the specialization and division of labour. According to Roper (1978) Trade refers to buying and selling of goods and services for money or money’s worth. It involves the transfer or exchange of goods and services for money or money’s worth. The manufacturer or producer produces the goods then moves on to the wholesaler, then to retailer and finally to the ultimate consumer.

Science
According to Morris (2008) Science is the concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding

Technology
According to David (2003) the word technology comes from the Greek words techne which means “craft” and logy which means “scientific study of”. So technology means the “scientific study of craft”. Craft here means any method or inventions that allow humans to control or adapt to their environment.

Theoretical Framework

The theory put into consideration in this work is the globalization theory. Globalization is a theory whose aim includes the interpretation of the current events on the international sphere in terms of development, economic conditions, social scenarios, and political and cultural influences. In more specific terms it is important to mention that the globalization theory implies a key element concerning integration -integration regarding international trade, the international financial system, technology and the act of communication among states
Globalization theory focuses on a process of accelerated communication and economic integration which transcends national boundaries and increasingly incorporates all parts of the world into a single social system (Burnell P, Randall V. 2008).
Peter (2002) describes globalization as the integration of economic decision making such as consumption, investment and saving across the world , this implies that globalization is a process that creates global market where all nations are compelled to participate, it consist of a relationship between sovereign countries through trade and capital flow.
The key elements of this theory involves the inter connectedness of sovereign states through trade, science and technology, the effect of this interconnectedness or relationship on the international system be it positive or negative. Globalization however comprises of four dimensions which are; economic, cultural, political and ecological, our focus in relation to the topic concerns basically economic globalization. Shangquan (2000) conceptualizes economic globalization as an increasing interdependence of world economies as a result of the scale of cross border trade relations flow of international capital and rapid spread of technologies.

The Relevance of this Theory Include the Following:
This theory is relevant because it shows the integration of the world as a global village which help in making it easy for state to relate with each other in the international scene for the main purpose of achieving their foreign policy.
Second, under current global conditions, and when we are studying a particular system -i.e., financial or trade sphere- it is not as important as previously thought to use the nation-state category as a unit of analysis, since global communications and international ties are making this category less useful.
Third, with more standardization in technological advances, more and more social sectors will be able to connect themselves with other groups around the world, which implies faster and easier communications and economic transactions.
It also deals with analysing the inter relationship between trade and science and technology in the international scene. Additional employment in the capital goods sector where new machines are being produced, decreases in prices resulting from lower production costs on account of technological innovations,

The Nexus between Trade, Science and Technology

Science and technology or productive technology can be traced to the 18th century industrial revolution in Europe. It was one of the major reasons for the increased trade among Europe and the whole world. (Akpuru, 2002: 45).
Science and technology is important in trade because it accounts for productive efficiency and mass production. It is as a result of technology that industry has supremacy over agriculture.
Technology has contributed greatly to trade. Today it is the nucleus of extractive, manufacturing and distributive industries, including the revolution presently occurring in the agricultural sector.
It also had an impact on global trade in the sense that less advanced countries will like to trade with countries with technologically advanced countries. For instance, 15 years ago Nigeria had no Mammogram or MRI scan but now they have it and this has affected their trade with the global world because both neighbouring and distant countries will like to purchase these services. It can also be viewed at a totally different angle. Due to lack of trained personnel or professionals to operate these machines or render these services, she might decide to import the necessary labour or skill from overseas.
A significance of modern production system is heavily technologically. This can be seen in the case of the multinational corporations in Nigeria. These firms or companies are successful in their host countries more than the local industries present there due to the importation of foreign technology. An example is Julius Berger Construction Company.

The Benefits of the nexus between Trade, Science and Technology

Use of Technology in Business: today business can save money by using technology to perform certain talks. For instance if you operate a manufacturing business instead of bringing so many people to work in certain areas, with the involvement of machines it will therefore lead to rapid production.
The Using of Technology in

Communication: unlike in the past when communication was limited to litter and waiting for those posted services to derive your message. To technology has made the field of communication easy.
The Use of Technology in Education. Also technology has made a very big change in the world today as it has ensured easy access for business men to get acquainted to learning facilities and also to acquire basic knowledge on how to handle a particular business since the requirements necessary for that particular line of business have been acquired or achieved, therefore this serves as one of the major benefits of technology to trade.
Use of Technology in Purchasing: technology has also made the buying and selling of goods and services so flexible with the introduction of e-payment systems like PayPal. Com and square wallet app, users can easily purchase anything online without living to comfort of their home.

The Use of Technology in Agriculture: this has to do with the invention of machines for farmers, they can use a farm machine like farmgraze, to work faster and be more accurate while in the field and off the field. For instance farmgraze machine will help the farmers manage their grass more effectively by suggesting the cheapest feed for their livestock.
The use of technology in

transportation: The invention of cargo train, cargo plane and large ship such as Allure of the sea and cargo ship are used in the transportation of finished goods from one country to another so as to facilitate international trade.
Use of Technology in the Banking: now electronic banking moving money has become so simple. The invention of visa electron has made it simply to move with more money without having any fears of getting robbed on the way. You can buy and anything with a visa electron card, so in this case you do not have to move with cash. Spero, (1980).

The Disadvantages of the Relationship between Trade Science and Technology

Beside the numerous advantages of science and technology in trade, there are also some disadvantages these include the following:

Over Dependency: the disadvantages of science and technology in trade have created dependency in the sense that those countries which are not technologically advanced now depend on the countries which are technologically advanced. As a result of this, the advanced state uses the opportunity to exploit the underdeveloped or developing state.

Colonialism: colonialism can be defined as the total political, economic and socio-cultural domination of a stronger state over a weaker state. As a result of the discovery and the advancement of in science and technology brought about the overproduction and under consumption of goods and service which then result for the advanced state to search for market where they can sell their goods and service which then lead to colonialism of third world states.
The Production of Substandard Product: Again, another disadvantage of science and technology in trade is that it aids in the production of substandard product. Also through advanced medium of communication this substandard goods are introduced into 3rd world countries.

Employment: science and technology is often accompanied by industrialization. Industrialization entails the use of machines which is aimed at mass productivity. Once this is done, it leads to unemployment because machines now take the position of humans who were willing to work.
Environmental Degradation- Most multinational corporations who are sited in host countries amount for the environmental degradation of such host countries. This might be through oil spillage, air pollution and water pollution. An example is a case of Shell petroleum that has issues of oil spillage in most riverine areas. This is the reason why they have decided to go offshore.
It has also affected the health of individuals. When these Multinational corporations degrade the environment it might affect the health of the individuals living in that location. An example can be seen in the case of gas flaring in Nigeria. The people located in the region where the gas is flared tend to develop respiratory illness and mostly cancer.

Conclusion
Conclusively it is very obvious and apparent that science and technology has had a great impact on trade, but in reaction to the question above this explains that the relationship which exists between trade, science and technology is a double edge sword. So therefore in the course of this work we have been able to explained the nexus between these three subject matters as well as the benefits between them and also the disadvantages of the relationship between trade, science and technology have been analysed. Hence one can say that these three concepts are interrelated and interdependent.

References
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SAP tmp_4678-SAP and it’s implications on Civil Service-163800924

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